Adapted by Linda Burdick
from a unit by Barbara Brown, East Rochester School.
This unit traces one focus
question through eras to show change over time, concentrating on nh landscape
formation, natural boundaries, human boundaries, and boundary disputes.
FOCUS QUESTION 1:
What are the boundaries ofNdw Hampshire and how did they get there?
ERAS: I (Beginnings
to 1623), 2 (1623-1763), 3 (1754-1820), 4 (1801-1861), 5 (1850-1877), 6
(1870-1900), 7 (1890-1930)
Students should be able to identify neighborhood, town, and state boundaries.
Students should be able to distinguish between natural and man-made boundaries.
should be able to identify
major state geological features. Using maps, students should be able to
explain how NH boundaries have changed over time.
TO EXPLORE (inquiry questions taken from NH History Curriculum):
1. Are there boundaries
around me? Where are they? What do they mean to me?
Methods: [Note: See
resource list for books mentioned in the methods section.]
A. Using Sobel's
book as a reference, have the children draw maps of their neighborhoods,
including their boundaries. How far will their parents let them go on their
own? Then have the students discuss their maps and boundaries.
oaktag stencils of the outline of your town. (Town maps are available in
your local library, historical society, town hall, or at the New Hampshire
Historical Society.) Students use the stencils at their desks while you
work with an overhead projector. Students trace the outline of their town
on paper. Then guide them through adding bordering communities and natural
features such as rivers. Students devise a compass rose and legends for
are there boundaries in New Hampshire?
A. Small groups
look at state maps of NH. What are some natural boundaries? Each group
lists the major topographical features. Compare lists.
B. Make oaktag
stencils of the state. Use the same process as I .B. Use the lists generated
in activity 2.A., and have students draw these on their maps. Then discuss
the political boundaries. Do they match the natural boundaries? Use
other boundaries, such as major regions of New Hampshire. (See Brietbart
map or Ladd map.)
C. Do map worksheets
in "Literature Based Map Skills" (Sniffen).
were the natural boundaries in New Hampshire formed?
A. Show the
video, "Franconia Notch." (See student worksheet for directed viewing.)
The video illustrates the glacier effect on the NH landscape and introduces
B. Give students
fact sheets about glaciers. (Lacasse, 1977, and see following pages.) Read
aloud and discuss.
C. Make a model
of a glacier. Freeze a large pan of ice with colored aquarium rocks mixed
in. Place on a "mountain" of soil. Let the ice melt. Students should record
D. Color an
outline map of North America. Color land one color and the ocean blue.
Using the Holt science book, students sketch in the boundary of the glacier.
Students take cotton balls and glue over the sketched in area representing
the glacier. Note the location of NH.
list evidence they have observed of glaciers' effect in New Hampshire.
What natural features were formed by glaciers?
4. Have man-made boundaries
in New Hampshire always been in the same place? If not, who moved them
the native peoples ofNH. Where did they live? Using the "Indians ofNH"
map (or maps found in Galloway's books or "Facts on
File" ), see if you can
find any natural boundaries between the different tribes. Write your conclusions.
What natural features formed boundaries most often?
B. Discuss European
exploration and colonization. Use maps found in "Facts on File" to trace
where they explored and settled in New England and NH.
C. Using a series
of maps ( Drake, 1889; Bailey, 1960; Bardwell, 1989; Gilmore, 1989), compare
boundary changes from the 1600s to 1997. Discuss why changes were made
and the impact of population growth. Using maps. discuss Bennirig Wentworth's
role in granting town charters in the interior ofNH and what is now Vermont.
Highlight the major boundary changes the Mason grant and the impact that
had on future disputes, the 1740 boundary, the Indian Stream controversy,
the Connecticut River boundary dispute, and the modern day boundary dispute
with Maine. Have
students plot the changes
and the dates they occurred on a series of blank state maps. What conclusion
can they draw? (That our state boundaries have changed over time.)
D. Have students
research in newspapers what citizens and editors had to say about different
boundary disputes. (The NH-ME line is the most recentmid 1990s.) Role play
a decision to change a boundary. Have students bejudges, lawyers, and citizens
from both sides of the boundary.
E. Using several maps
and time lines, create a time line of important facts relating to NH boundaries.
1. Students label
boundaries, natural features, and neighboring communities on a blank town
2. In an essay, students
explain how glaciers impacted the NH landscape, and give examples. Use
a rubric to evaluate.
3. Students label man-made
boundaries, natural features, neighboring states, and country on a blank
4. In an essay, students
explain that NH man-made boundaries have changed over time, and give examples.
Use a rubric to evaluate.
Abruscateo, Joseph, etal.
Science. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1986. Chapter on glaciers.
Bailey, Lillian. Up and
Down New Hampshire. Oxford, NH: Equity Pub.,1960.
Bardwell, John D., and Ronald
P. Bergeron. The Lakes Region of New Hampshire, A Visual History.
Norfolk, VA: The Donning Co., 1989.
Benjamin, Cynthia. Literature-Based
Map Skills-- Northeast United States. Kent, CT: Sniffen Court Books,
Blaisdell, Katherine. Over
the River and Through the Years for Children, Book One, Early History of
the Upper Connecticut Valley. Littleton.NH: Sherwin/Dodge Printers,
Brietbart, Janice, et al.
of New HampshireThe Indians of New Hampshire. Workbook for grade 4.
Browne, G. Waldo and Rilma
Marion Browne. The Story of New Hampshire. Manchester, NH: Standard
Book Co. Inc.. 1925.
Galloway, Colin. The Abenaki.
New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1989.
Drake, Samuel Adams. The
Making of New England. Cambridge, MA: Riverside Press, 1889.
Facts on File, Inc. 1984.
Fiske, John. The Beginnings
of New England. Cambridge, MA: Riverside Press, MA: 1889.
Franconia Notch State
Park. Distributed by NH Movies, Cineworks Productions, Inc. 124 Great
Bay Road, Greenland, NH 03840.
Gilmore, Robert C. and Bruce
E. Ingmire. The Seacoast of New Hampshire. Norfolk, VA: The Donning
Hearse Brothers,. "Indians
of New Hampshire." 1973. Map.
Lacasse, Maryann Jewel).
Facts and Fun with New Hampshire. 1977.
Ladd, Richard J. New
Hampshire Past and Present. Seabrook, NH: Whithey Press.
Danbury,CT: Franklin Watts, 1996.
Marsh, Carole. New Hampshire
Timeline: A Chronology of Our State's History, Mystery', Trivia, Legend,
Lore and More! Decatur.GA: Gallopade Pub., 1992.
Moses, George Higgins. "New
Hampshire, the Granite State," National Geographic Magazine 60,
no. 3 (Sept. 1931) 257-310.
Murphy, Francis, Co-operating
Sponsor. American Guide Series, New Hampshire, A Guide to the Granite
State. Boston, MA: HoughtonMifflin Co., 1938.
Pettengill, Samuel B. The
Yankee Pioneers- A Saga in Courage. Hanover, NH: Regional Center for
Educational Training, 1977.
Price, Chester. "Historic
Indian Trails of New Hampshire, " The New Hampshire Archeologist
14 (June 1967) Available as a poster from the Museum of New Hampshire History
Robinson, William F. Abandoned
New England's Hidden Ruins and Where to Find Them. Boston: New York
Graphic Society, 1976.
Sobel, David. Children's
Special Places. Exploring the Role of Forts, Dens, and Bush Houses in Middle
Childhood. Tucson, AZ: Zephyr Press, 1993.
Speare.Eva. Indians of
New Hampshire. Littleton, NH: Courier Printing Co., Inc., 1965.