Standard 1. Chronological Thinking
A. Distinguish between past, present, and future time.
B. Identify the temporal structure of a historical narrative or story.
C. Establish temporal order in constructing their [students'] own historical narratives.
D. Measure and calculate calendar time,
E. Interpret data presented in time lines.
F. Create time lines.
G. Explain change and continuity over time.

Standard 2. Historical Comprehension
A. Identify the author or source of a historical document or narrative.
B. Reconstruct the literal meaning of a historical passage.
C. Identify the central question(s) the historical narrative addresses.
D. Read historical narratives imaginatively.
E. Appreciate historical perspectives.
F.  Draw upon the data in historical maps.
G. Draw upon visual and mathematical data presented in graphs.
H. Draw upon the visual data presented in photographs, paintings, cartoons, and architectural drawings.

Standard 3. Historical Analysis and Interpretation
A. Formulate questions to focus their [students'] inquiry or analysis.
B. Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas, values, personalities, behaviors, and institutions.
C. Analyze historical fiction.
D. Distinguish between fact and fiction.
E. Compare different stories about a historical figure, era, or event.
F.  Analyze illustrations in historical stories.
G. Consider multiple perspectives.
H. Explain causes in analyzing historical actions.
I.  Challenge arguments of historical inevitability.
J.   Hypothesize influences of the past.

Standard 4. Historical Research Capabilities
A. Formulate historical questions.
B. Obtain historical data.
C. Interrogate historical data.
D. Marshall needed knowledge of the time and place, and construct a story, explanation, or historical narrative.

Standard 5. Historical Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making
A. Identify issues and problems in the past.
B. Analyze the interests and values of the people involved.
C. Identify causes of the problem or dilemma.
D. Propose alternative choices for addressing the problem.
E. Formulate a position or course of action on an issue.
F.  Identify the solution chosen.
G. Evaluate the consequences of a decision.

IntroductionQuestionsOverviewsPeopleLesson PlansAppendixesAppendix AAppendix BAppendix CAppendix DAppendix FAppendix G